过去分词

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过去分词(past participle)是分词的一种。规则动词的过去分词一般是由动词加-ed构成(规则见后)。
中文名
过去分词
外文名
past participle
别    称
过去分词
应用学科
英语
常见结构
动词原形加-ed
类    别
类动词
简    写
pp.

过去分词构成规则

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规则动词的过去分词的构成规则与规则动词的过去式的构成规则相同。四点变化规则:
(1)一般动词,在词尾直接加“-ed ”。(然而要注意的是,过去分词并不是过去式)
work---worked---worked,visit---visited---visited
(2)以不发音的“e”结尾的动词,只在词尾加“d ”。
live---lived---lived
(3)以“辅音字母 + y ”结尾的动词,将 "y" 变为 "i" ,再加“-ed”。
study—studied—studied,cry—cried—cried,try—tried—tried,fry—fried—fried. [1] 
(4)重读闭音节结尾,末尾只有一个辅音字母(r、y、x除外),先双写该辅音字母,再加“-ed”。
stop—stopped—stopped,drop—dropped—dropped
  • 特例:有两类动词本身应该直接加“ed”,但由于历史习惯,依旧要双写最后一个字母,再加“ed”。以“元音字母+l”非重读结尾的规则动词变过去分词也要双写“l",再加“ed”。例如cancel→cancelled,dial→dialled。另外还有一些以非重读闭音节结尾的规则动词变过去分词也要双写最后一个辅音字母,再加“ed”。例如:kidnap→kidnapped,worship→worshipped。而上述两种情况在美国一般却直接加“ed”。
(5)以c结尾的动词,要变c为ck,再加“-ed”。
picnic→picnicked,traffic→trafficked
  • 注:这样做主要是为了避免变化后其原型尾音/k/变成/s/。根据英文的拼写规则,c在字母e、i、y之前均发/s/,其他情况下均发/k/。如果直接加“ed”的话,trafficed将会读成/'træfɪsɪd/,而不读/'træfɪkt/。

过去分词不规则动词

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过去分词AAA型

原形过去式和过去分词三者都相同。(共9个)
  1. cost—cost—cost
  2. cut—cut—cut
  3. hit—hit—hit
  4. hurt—hurt—hurt
  5. let—let—let
  6. put—put—put
  7. read—read—read(read的原形和过去式、过去分词 读音不同 [2]  )
  8. set-set-set
  9. shut-shut-shut

过去分词ABB型

过去式、过去分词相同。(共42个)
  1. 过去式和过去分词都含有 -ought。(4个)
      bring—brought—brought
      buy—bought—bought
      think—thought—thought
      fight—fought—fought
  2. 词尾有-ild,-end时,只需把d变为t。(4个)
      build—built—built
      lend—lent— lent
      send—sent—sent
      spend—spent— spent
  3. 过去式、过去分词都含有 -aught。(2个)
      catch—caught—caught
      teach—taught—taught
  4. 把-eep、-eel变为-ept、-elt。(4个)
      keep—kept—kept
      sleep—slept—slept
      sweep— swept—swept
      feel—felt— felt
  5. 把-ell变为-old。(2个)
      tell—told—told
      sell—sold—sold
  6. 把-ell、-ill变为-elt或-ilt。(3个)
      smell—smelt—smelt
      spell—spelt—spelt
      spill—spilt—spilt
  7. 把-eed、-ead、-eet变为-ed或-et。(4个)
      feed—fed—fed
      lead—led—led
      speed—sped—sped
      meet—met—met
  8. 过去式、过去分词都在原形词尾加t。(6个)
      learn—learnt—learnt
      mean—meant—meant
      spoil—spoilt—spoilt
      burn—burnt—burnt
      dream—dreamt—dreamt
      deal—dealt—dealt
  9. 过去式、过去分词词尾去y变-id(3个)
      say—said—said
      pay—paid—paid
      lay—laid—laid
  10. 改变元音字母。(12个)
      get—got—got
      sit—sat—sat
      find—found—found
      hold—held—held
      spit—spat—spat
      shine—shone—shone
      win—won—won
      hang—hung—hung
      dig— dug—dug
      lose—lost—lost
  11. 改变辅音字母。(4个)
      make—made—made
  12. 改变元、辅音字母。(4个)
      leave—left—left
      stand—stood—stood
      have/has—had—had
      understand—understood—understood

过去分词ABC型

原形过去式、过去分词都不相同。(共39个)
  1. i—a—u变化。(7个)
      begin—began—begun
      drink—drank—drunk
      sing— sang—sung
      ring—rang—rung
      swim—swam—swum
      sink— sank—sunk
      spring—sprang—sprung
  2. 词尾为-ow,-aw时,过去式将其变为-ew,过去分词在其原形后加n。(5个)
      blow—blew—blown
      draw—drew—drawn
      grow— grew—grown
      know—knew—known
      throw—threw—thrown
    (show除外)
  3. 词尾为“i+辅(1个)+e”,过去式将i变为o,过去分词多在原形后加n,若那个辅音字母为d或t,须双写d或t后加n。(4个)(give,hide除外)
      drive—drove—driven
      write—wrote—written
      ride— rode—ridden
      rise—rose—risen
  4. 过去分词在过去式后加n。(3个)
      wake—woke—woken
      speak-spoke-spoken
      steal-stole-stolen
  5. 过去分词由过去式加-ten构成。(2个)
      get-got-gotten/got
      forget—forgot—forgotten
  6. 过去分词由原形加(e)n构成。(6个)
      be—was(were)—been
      eat—ate—eaten
      fall—fell—fallen
      give—gave—given
      see—saw—seen
      hide—hid—hidden(hid)
  7. 词尾为-ake时,过去式将其变为-ook,过去分词在原形词后加-n。(2个)
      take—took—taken
      mistake—mistook—mistaken
  8. 原形、过去式和过去分词都不相同。(6个)
      do—did—done
      fly—flew—flown
      go—went—gone
      lie—lay—lain
      show—showed—shown
      wear—wore—worn
  9. 词尾为-eak时,过去式将其变为-oke,过去分词在过去式后加-n。(2个)
      break—broke—broken
      speak—spoke—spoken
  10. 词中间为“oo+辅(1个)+e”或“ee+辅(1个)+e”,过去式将oo、ee变为o,过去分词在过去式后加-n。(2个)
      choose—chose—chosen
      freeze—froze—frozen

过去分词AAB型

过去式和原形相同。(1个)
beat—beat—beaten

过去分词ABA型

过去分词和原形相同。(共3个)
词中间为“o+辅+e”时,过去式将o变为a。(2个)
  come—came—come
  become—became—become

过去分词情态动词型

(除must)
只有原形和过去式,没有过去分词。(共4个)
  1. can—could
  2. may—might
  3. will—would
  4. shall—should
must 既没有过去式也没有过去分词。

过去分词常用过去分词

be(am,is,are) (是)was,were been
begin(开始) began begun
  drink(喝) drank drunk
  ring(铃响) rang rung
  sing (唱) sang sung
  swim(游泳) swam swum
  blow(吹) blew blown
  draw(画) drew drawn
  fly(飞) flew flown
  grow(生长) grew grown
  know(知道) knew known
  throw(投掷) threw thrown
  show(出示) showed shown
  break(打破) broke broken
  choose(选择) chose chosen
  forget(忘记) forgot forgotten (forgot)
  speak(说,讲) spoke spoken
  wake(醒) woke woken
  drive(驾驶) drove driven
  eat(吃) ate eaten
  fall(落下) fell fallen
  give(给) gave given
  rise(升高) rose risen
  take(取) took taken
  ride(骑) rode ridden
  write(写) wrote written
  do(做) did done
  go(去) went gone
  lie(平躺) lay lain
  see(看见) saw seen
  wear (穿) wore worn
cost(花费)cost cost
cut(割) cut cut
  hit(打) hit hit
  hurt(伤害) hurt hurt
  let(让) let let
  put(放) put put
  read(读) read read
  动词原形 过去式 过去分词 [2] 
  arise arose arisen

过去分词其他情况

awake awoke/awaked awoken
be was/were been
bear bore borne(携带)/born(出生)
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
befall befell befallen
bend bent bent
bet bet bet
bind bound bound
bite bit bitten/bit
bleed bled bled
blend blended blent
bless blessed blest
blow blew blown
break broke broken
breed bred bred
bring brought brought
broadcast broadcast/broadcasted broadcast / broadcasted
build built built
burn burnt/burned burnt/burned
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
cast cast cast
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
cleave clove/cleft cloven/cleft
cling clung clung
clothe clothed/clad clothed/clad
come came come
cost cost cost
creep crept crept
crow crowed/crew crowed
cut cut cut
dare dared/durst dared
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt/dreamed dreamt/dreamed
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
dwell dwelt dwelt
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
flee fled fled
fling flung flung
fly flew flown
forbid forbade/forbad forbidden
forecast forecast/forecasted forecast / forecasted
forget forgot forgotten
forgive forgave forgiven
freeze froze frozen
gainsay gainsaid gainsaid
get got gotten
gild gilded/gilt gilded
gird girded/girt girded/girt
give gave given
go went gone
grave graved graven/graved
grind ground ground
grow grew grown
hang hung/hanged hung/hanged
have had had
hear heard heard
heave heaved/hove hesved/hove
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
kneel knelt knelt
know knew known
lade laded laden
lay laid laid
lead led led
lean leant/leaned leant/leaned
leap leapt/leaped leapt/leaped
learn learnt/learned learnt/learned
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lielay lain
lielied lied
light lit/lighted lit/lighted
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
melt melted meited/molten
mistake mistook mistaken
misunderstand misunderstood misunderstood
outgrow outgrew outgrown
overcome overcame overcome
oversee oversaw overseen
pay paid paid
prove proved proved/proven
put put put
quit quitted/quit quitted/quit
read read read
rend rent rent
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
rive rived riven/rived
run ran run
saw sawed sawn/sawed
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn/sewed
shake shook shaken
shave shaved shaved/shaven
shear sheared sheared/shorn
shed shed shed
shine shone shone
shoe shod shod
shoot shot shot
show showed shown/showed
shrink shrank / shrunk shrunk/shrunken
shrive shrove / shrived shriven/shrived
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sink sank/sunk sunk/sunken
sit sat sat
slay slew slain
sleep slept slept
slide slid slid
sling slung slung
slink slunk slunk
slit slit slit
smell smelt/smelled smelt/smelled
smite smote smitten
sow sowed sown/sowed
speak spoke spoken
speed sped/speeded sped/speeded
spell spelt/spelled spelt/spelled
spend spent spent
spill spilt/spilled spilt/spilled
spin spun/span spun
spit spat/spit spat/spit
spoil spoilt/spoiled spoilt/spoiled
spread spread spread
spring sprang/sprung sprung
stand stood stood
stave staved/stove staved/stove
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swell swelled swollen/swelled
swim swam swum
swing swung swung
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
thrust thrust thrust
tread trod trodden/trod
upset upset upset
wake woke/waked woken/waked
wear wore worn
weave wove woven
weep wept wept
win won won
wind wound wound
work worked/wrought worked/wrought
wring wrung wrung
write wrote written

过去分词句法作用

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过去分词作表语

The city is surrounded on three sides by mountains. 这座城市三面环山。
【注意】过去分词作表语与被动语态的区别:过去分词作表语,主要是表示主语的状态,而被动语态则表示动作。
(1) The cup was broken by my little sister yesterday. 茶杯是昨天我小妹打碎的。(是被动语态,表示动作)
(2) The library is now closed. 图书馆关门了。(过去分词作表语)
【注意】过去分词表示被动和完成,V-ing 形式表示主动和进行.有些动词如 interest,bore,worry,surprise,frighten 等通常用其过去分词形式来修饰人,用 -ing 形式来修饰物.。
(3) The book is interesting and I'm interested in it. 这本书很有趣,我对它很感兴趣。

过去分词作定语

作定语的过去分词相当于形容词,其逻辑主语就是它所修饰的名词.及物动词的过去分词作定语,既表被动又表完成;不及物动词的过去分词作定语,只表完成。
1. 过去分词用作定语,如果是单个的,常置于其所修饰的名词之前。
We must adapt our thinking to the changed conditions. 我们必须使我们的思想适应改变了的情况。
2. 过去分词短语用作定语时,一般置于其所修饰的名词之后,其意义相当于一个定语从句,但较从句简洁,多用于书面语中。
The concert given by their friends was a success.他们朋友举行的音乐会大为成功。
3.过去分词短语有时也可用作非限制性定语,前后常有逗号。
The meeting,attended by over five thousand people,welcomed the great hero. 他们举行了欢迎英雄的大会,到会的有五千多人。
4. 用来修饰人的过去分词有时可以转移到修饰非人的事物,这种过去分词在形式上虽不直接修饰人,但它所修饰的事物仍与人直接有关。
The boy looked up with a pleased satisfied expression. 男孩带着满意的表情举目而视。

过去分词作状语

1. 过去分词作状语表示被动的和完成的动作。
(1) Written in a hurry,this article was not so good! 因为写得匆忙,这篇文章不是很好。
【注意】written 为过去分词作状语,表示这篇文章是被写的,而且已经被写. 值得注意的是,有些过去分词因来源于系表结构,作状语时不表被动而表主动.这样的过去分词及短语常见的有: lost (迷路); seated (坐); hidden (躲); stationed (驻扎); lost / absorbed in (沉溺于); born (出身于); dressed in (穿着); tired of (厌烦)。
(2) Lost / Absorbed in deep thought,he didn't hear the sound.因为沉溺于思考之中,所以他没听到那个声音。
2. 过去分词作状语时其逻辑主语为主句的主语,此时应注意人称一致;
(1) Given another hour,I can also work out this problem.
再给我一个小时,我也能解这道题.(given 为过去分词作状语,它的逻辑主语为主句主语 I,即 I 被再给一个小时。)
(2)Seen from the top of the hill,the city looks more beautiful to us.
从山顶看城市,城市显得更漂亮。(seen 为过去分词作状语,表"被看",由语境可知,它的逻辑主语必须是城市,而不是"我们",因为"我们"应主动看城市。)
【注意】如果过去分词作状语时,前面再加逻辑主语,主句的主语就不再是分词的逻辑主语,这种带逻辑主语的过去分词结构实际上属于独立主格结构
(1) The signal given,the bus started. 信号一发出,汽车就开动了。(the signal 是 given 的逻辑主语,因此主句主语 the bus 就不是given 的逻辑主语。
(2) Her head held high,she went by. 她把头昂得高高地从这儿走了过去。(her head 是 held high 的逻辑主语,因此主句主语 she 就不再是held high 的逻辑主语。)
3. 过去分词作状语来源于状语从句.
(1) Caught in a heavy rain,he was all wet. 因为淋了一场大雨,所以他全身湿透了。 (caught in a heavy rain 为过去分词短语作原因状语,它来源于原因状语从句Because he was caught in a heavy rain.)
(2)_Grown in rich soil,these seeds can grow fast. 如果种在肥沃的土壤里,这些种子能长得很快。( grown in rich soil 为过去分词作条件状语,它来源于条件状语从句 。If these seeds are grown in rich soil.
【注意】状语从句改成过去分词作状语时有时还可保留连词,构成"连词+过去分词"结构作状语。
When given a medical examination,you should keep calm. 当你做体格检查时要保持镇定。
4. 过去分词作状语的位置.过去分词可放在主句前作句首状语,后面有逗号与主句隔开;也可放在主句后面,前面有逗号与主句隔开。
He stood there silently,moved to tears. = Moved to tears,he stood there silently. 他静静地站在那里,被感动得热泪盈眶

过去分词作宾语补足语

(一)能够接过去分词作宾补的动词有以下四类:
1. 表示感觉或心理状态的动词.如:see,watch,observe,look at,hear,listen to,feel,notice,think等。
(1) I heard the song sung in English. 我听到有人用英语唱过这首歌。(过去分词sung的动作显然先于谓语动作heard;)
(2) He found his hometown greatly changed. 他发现他的家乡变化很大。(过去分词changed的动作显然先于谓语动作found)
2. 表示"致使"意义的动词.如:have,make,get,keep,leave等。
(1) I'll have my hair cut tomorrow. 明天我要理发。
(2) He got his tooth pulled out yesterday. 他昨天把牙拔了。
(3) Don't leave those things undone. 要把那些事情做完。
3. 表示思维活动的动词如consider,know,think等后。如:
(1) I consider the matter settled. 我认为这件事解决了。
(2) I thought myself wronged somehow in the bargain. 我认为自己在这场交易中又受愚弄了。
4. 表示爱憎,意愿的动词如want, wish, like, hate等后。如:
(1) I wanted two tickets reserved. 我要预定两张机票。
(2) He didn’t wish it mentioned. 他不愿这事被提起。
【注意】过去分词所表示的动作一定和宾语有逻辑上的动宾关系
(二)使役动词have接过去分词作宾补有两种情况。
1. 过去分词所表示的动作由他人完成。
He had his money stolen.他的钱给偷了。(被别人偷去了)
2. 过去分词所表示的动作由句中的主语所经历.如: He had his leg broken.他的腿断了。 (自己的经历)

过去分词其他

with +宾语+过去分词
此结构中,过去分词用作介词with的宾语补足语.这一结构通常在句中作时间,方式,条件,原因等状语
(1) The murderer was brought in,with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了,他的双手被绑在背后。(表方式)
(2) With water heated,we can see the steam. 水一被加热,我们就会看到水蒸气。(表条件)
(3) With the matter settled,we all went home. 事情得到解决,我们都回家了。(表原因)
(4)_She stood in front of him,with her eyes fixed on his face. 她站在他面前,眼睛注视着他。
(5) He stood for an instant with his hand still raised. 他仍然举着手站了一会儿。
参考资料
  • 1.    张道真.张道真英语语法.北京:商务印刷馆国际有限公司,2002:51-52
  • 2.    《科林斯高阶英汉词典》
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